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NGC 678, 680, 691, 694, and Arp 31



Scope: Celestron 9.25 Edge HD 235 mm at f/7, Location: DAA Observatory, Shelter Valley, CA, 18 October 2022,  Camera: ASI294MM (Baader  LRGB Filters)

Exposure: L - 72 x 3 minutes (gain-130 2x2) ,  RGB - 20 each x 2 minutes  - (gain-130 2x2).

Processing: Data Collection -  Sequence Generator Pro (as FITs).  Sub-frame calibration - Pixinsight (WBPP). Sub-frame  registration and integration (Average combine -  Winsorized Sigma Clipping) - PixInsight (WBPP).  Mure Denoise - PixInsight.  Non-linear stretching, normalization and gradient removal - PixInsight.   Curves, Levels, RGB combine, Luminance layering - PixInsight. Generation of starless Luminance image for later processing - StarXTerminator. Photometric RGB calibration (SPCC) - PixInsight.  De-convolution - BlurXTerminator.  Final finishing  - Affinity Photo.  Annotation - PixInsight, Aladin (Simbad and NED), and Affinity Photo. This image is a  LRGB with luminance layering.  Image processed at 4144x2822 resolution. Final Image size is approximately  3764x2763.

North is down in this image.  This image shows six NGC or IC galaxies - NGC 678, 680, 691, and 694; and IC 167 (ARP 31), IC 1730.  All are at similar estimated distances (110 to 123 million light years - by redshift). Four galaxies are classified as spirals; of the remaining two, one is not classified and the other is  possibly peculiar rather than a spiral.  There are many background galaxies that are visible in the full size image. One, LEDA 165665  has a redshift estimated distance of 1,254 million light years light years.   The furthest objects are the Quasars and their distances range from 1.29 to 10.02 billion years (Lookback).  These objects, information, background galaxies, and some of the brighter stars are identified in the annotated image Horizontal FOV is approximately 38.75 arc minutes. Full size image scale is approximately 0.58 arcsec/pix.

Image Center approximately - Equatorial 2000: RA: 01h 50m 09s Dec: +2155'09"


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